Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purposes. Modern use of similar terms includes genetic engineering as well as cell- and tissue culture technologies. The concept encompasses a wide range of procedures (and history) for modifying living organisms according to human purposes-going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of plants and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. By comparison to biotechnology, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field with its emphasis more on higher systems approaches (not necessarily directly altering or using biological materials) for interfacing with and utilizing living things.
Biotechnology draws on the pure biological sciences (genetics, microbiology, animal cell culture, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology, cell biology) and in many instances is also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology (chemical engineering, bioprocess engineering, information technology, biorobotics). Conversely, modern biological sciences (including concepts such as molecular ecology) are intimately entwined and dependent on the methods developed through biotechnology and what is commonly thought of as the life sciences industry. Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances such as synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn. Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), are also used to manufacture certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals.
Mohammad H Sanati, PhD
A Amiri Yekta, MSc
E Bahraminejad, MSc
N Fatemi, MSc
- Human factor IX production in transgenic goat by nuclear transfer, from 2007
- Production of recombinant human and animal fertility hormones, from 2011Production of transgenic chicken with Anti-CD34
- Antibody Gene expression in oviduct, from 2011